Physical Chemistry By Pc Rakshit In Pdf
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Lifschitz, Wu, et al., 1978Lifschitz, C.; Wu, R.L.C.; Tiernan, T.O.; Terwillinger, D.T.,Negative Ion - Molecule Reactions of Ozone and Their Implications on the Thermochemistry of O3-,J. Chem. Phys., 1978, 68, 1, 247, [all data]
Historically, LSM has been used as organic fertilizer, mainly as a source of N (Woli et al., 2013Woli, K.P.; Rakshit, S.; Lundvall, J.P.; Sawyer, J.E.; Barker, D.W. 2013. On-farm evaluation of liquid swine manure as a nitrogen source for corn production. Agronomy Journal 105: 248-262.), in areas cultivated with pastures and annual crops (Freitas et al., 2018Freitas, J.A.S.; Silva, V.R.; Luz, F.B.; Kaiser, D.R.; Zwirtes, A.L. 2018. Soil carbon and physical-mechanical properties after successive applications of swine and poultry organic waste. Pesquisa Agropecuária Tropical 48: 390-398.; Guardini et al., 2012Guardini, R.; Comin, J.J.; Santos, D.R.; Gatiboni, L.C.; Tiecher, T.; Schmitt, D.; Bender, M.A.; Belli, P.; Oliveira, P.A.V.; Brunetto, G. 2012. Phosphorus accumulation and pollution potential in a Hapludult fertilized with pig manure. Revista Brasileira de Ciência do Solo 36: 1333-1342.; Oliveira et al., 2017Oliveira, D.M.S.; Lima, R.P.; Barreto, M.S.C.; Verburg, E.E.J.; Mayrink, G.C.V. 2017. Soil organic matter and nutrient accumulation in areas under intensive management and swine manure application. Journal of Soils and Sediments 17: 1-10. DOI 10.1007/s11368-016-1474-6 -016-1474-... ). Successive applications of LSM, as organic fertilizer, enhance the growth and accumulation of dry matter biomass of Cynodon sp. cv. Tifton 85 (Ames et al., 2014Ames, J.P.; Neres, M.A.; Castagnara, D.D.; Mufatto, L.M.; Jobim, C.C.; Tres, T.T. 2014. Dry matter production, chemical composition, dry matter digestibility and occurrence of fungi in Bermuda grass hay (Cynodon dactylon) under different fertilization systems or associated with pea plantings in winter. Ciencia e Investigación Agraria 41: 163-174.), which is well-adapted to the subtropical climate conditions of southern Brazil, and is characterized by rapid growth and high digestibility (Burton, 2001Burton, G.W. 2001. Tifton bermudagrass: early history of its creation, selection, and evaluation. Crop Science 41: 5-6.).
Nutrient recycling from the application of LSM in the soil is important to increasing the sustainability of the production system (Guardini et al., 2012Guardini, R.; Comin, J.J.; Santos, D.R.; Gatiboni, L.C.; Tiecher, T.; Schmitt, D.; Bender, M.A.; Belli, P.; Oliveira, P.A.V.; Brunetto, G. 2012. Phosphorus accumulation and pollution potential in a Hapludult fertilized with pig manure. Revista Brasileira de Ciência do Solo 36: 1333-1342.). Several studies have revealed that successive applications of LSM can increase soil P, K, Mg, Ca, Cu, Mn and Zn contents, mainly in the surface layers, i.e., 0-10 cm (Formentini et al., 2015Formentini, T.A.; Mallmann, F.J.K.; Pinheiro, A.; Fernandes, C.V.S.; Bender, M.A. Veiga, M.; Santos, D.R.; Doelsch, E. 2015. Copper and zinc accumulation and fractionation in a clayey Hapludox soil subject to long-term pig slurry application. Science of the Total Environment 536: 831-839.; Lourenzi et al., 2015Lourenzi, C.R.; Ceretta, C.A.; Tiecher, T.L.; Lorensini, F.; Cancian, A.; Stefanello, L.; Girotto, E.; Vieira, R.C.B.; Ferreira, P.A.A.; Brunetto, G. 2015. Forms of phosphorus transfer in runoff under no-tillage in a soil treated with successive swine effluents applications. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 187: 209.; Grohskopf et al., 2016aGrohskopf, M.A.; Cassol, P.C.; Corrêa, J.C.; Albuquerque, J.A.; Ernani, P.R.; Mafra, M.S.H.; Mafra, A.L. 2016a. Soil solution nutrient availability, nutritional status and yield of corn grown in a typic Hapludox under 12 years of pig slurry fertilizations. Revista Brasileira de Ciência do Solo 40: e0150341.; Boitt et al., 2018Boitt, G.; Schmitt, D.E.; Gatiboni, L.C.; Wakelin, S.A.; Black, A.; Sacomori, W.; Cassol, P.C.; Condron, L.M. 2018. Fate of phosphorus applied to soil in pig slurry under cropping in southern Brazil. Geoderma 321: 164-172.), and influence the attributes of soil acidity (Lourenzi et al., 2015Lourenzi, C.R.; Ceretta, C.A.; Tiecher, T.L.; Lorensini, F.; Cancian, A.; Stefanello, L.; Girotto, E.; Vieira, R.C.B.; Ferreira, P.A.A.; Brunetto, G. 2015. Forms of phosphorus transfer in runoff under no-tillage in a soil treated with successive swine effluents applications. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 187: 209.). Long-term use of LSM may increase soil C (Oliveira et al., 2017Oliveira, D.M.S.; Lima, R.P.; Barreto, M.S.C.; Verburg, E.E.J.; Mayrink, G.C.V. 2017. Soil organic matter and nutrient accumulation in areas under intensive management and swine manure application. Journal of Soils and Sediments 17: 1-10. DOI 10.1007/s11368-016-1474-6 -016-1474-... ), with positive implications for chemical and physical properties of the soil (Cherubin et al., 2016Cherubin, M.R.; Franco, A.L.C.; Cerri, C.E.P.; Karlen, D.L.; Pavinato, P.S.; Rodrigues, M.; Davies, C.A.; Cerri, C.C. 2016. Phosphorus pools responses to land-use change for sugarcane expansion in weathered Brazilian soils. Geoderma 265: 27-38.). In the short term, LSM promotes few or even no changes in soil physical attributes, i.e. soil bulk density, macroporosity, total porosity (Freitas et al., 2018Freitas, J.A.S.; Silva, V.R.; Luz, F.B.; Kaiser, D.R.; Zwirtes, A.L. 2018. Soil carbon and physical-mechanical properties after successive applications of swine and poultry organic waste. Pesquisa Agropecuária Tropical 48: 390-398.; Cherubin et al., 2015Cherubin, M.R.; Eitelwein, M.T.; Fabbris, C.; Weirich, S.W.; Silva, R F.; Silva, V.R.; Basso, C.J. 2015. Physical, chemical, and biological quality in an oxisol under different tillage and fertilizer sources. Revista Brasileira de Ciência do Solo 39: 615-625 (in Portuguese, with abstract in English).). However, the increasing C probably does have positive implications for physical quality (Johannes et al., 2017Johannes, A.; Matter, A.; Schulin, R.; Weisskopf, P.; Baveye, P.C.; Boivin, P. 2017. Optimal organic carbon values for soil structure quality of arable soils. Does clay content matter? Geoderma 302: 14-21.), which may result in increased soil resilience and resistance to compaction (Bonetti et al., 2017Bonetti, J.A.; Anghinoni, I.; Moraes, M.T.; Fink, J.R. 2017. Resilience of soils with different texture, mineralogy and organic matter under long-term conservation systems. Soil Tillage Research. 174: 104-112.), the main cause of pasture degradation (Drewry et al., 2008Drewry, J.J.; Cameron, K.C.; Buchan, G.D. 2008. Pasture yield and soil physical property responses to soil compaction from treading and grazing: a review. Australian Journal of Soil Research 46: 237-256.).
Based on this, the hypothesis was that long-term use of LSM improves not only the soil chemical attributes, but also the soil physical attributes, offering a strategy for the sustaining of soil quality in cultivated pastures. Thus, a field study was conducted to evaluate changes in the chemical and physical attributes of soil in Cynodon pasture areas under successive LSM application for different lengths of time.
In each of the areas studied (i.e., three, eight and 15 years of LSM use and native forest), six sample points were randomly demarcated. At each point, both disturbed and undisturbed samples were collected for chemical and physical analysis, respectively. Soil samples were taken from the soil in Oct 2014, and the samples with preserved structure were collected using metal cylinders (5 cm high × 4.8 cm diameter), from layers 2-7; 10-15; 15-20 and 20-25 cm. Disturbed samples were collected from layers 0-5; 5-10; 10-15; 15-20 and 20-25 cm, each sample being composed of three subsamples. Both disturbed and undisturbed samples were stored in identified plastic bags and transported to the soil chemical and physical laboratory for preparation and analysis.
In the eight and 15 year areas, the time elapsed after planting the pasture and the action of the Cynodon root system probably led to a better restructuring of the surface soil layer. In addition, prolonged use of LSM allowed for C increases in the surface layers (Figure 2A), which favors the formation of organomineral complexes (Six et al., 2004Six, J.; Bossuyt, H.; Degryze, S.; Denef, K. 2004. A history of research on the link between (micro) aggregates, soil biota, and soil organic matter dynamics. Soil Tillage Research 79: 7-31.) and biological activity, which positively affect the process of soil aggregation (Lehmann et al., 2017Lehmann, A.; Zheng, W.; Rilling, M.C. 2017. Soil biota contributions to soil aggregation. Nature Ecology & Evolution 1: 1828-1835.). Consequently the structural quality of the soil showed that an increase in C was positively associated with the reduction in ρb (Figure 5). However, taking into consideration the high values of ρb and reduced macroporosity, and values observed in the pasture areas (Table 3), these benefits to the soil structure provided by the successive use of LSM are still very limited and are insufficient to fully alleviate limiting conditions induced by soil compaction to ensure suitable root growth (Moraes et al., 2018Moraes, M.T.; Bengough, A.G.; Debiasi, H.; Franchini, J.C.; Levien, R.; Schnepf, A.; Leitner, D. 2018. Mechanistic framework to link root growth models with weather and soil physical properties, including example applications to soybean growth in Brazil. Plant and Soil 428: 67-92.).
Changes in soil physical attributes were more related to the land use (pasture versus native forest) than to the duration of application of LSM. Soil physical quality was slightly enhanced by the long-term use of LSM (15 years), with small reductions in ρb and increases in porosity of the soil surface layer. Therefore, the effect of LSM in the period evaluated is not enough to significantly attenuate the physical degradation of the soil imposed by continuous animal grazing in Cynodon pasture areas. 2b1af7f3a8