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Sebastian Kelly
Sebastian Kelly


This sense of the word is often used in the context of food to describe things like ingredients, flavors, additives, and preservatives that are chemically processed. Food packaging often specifies whether a product has natural or artificial flavors (or both). An artificial sweetener is a kind of chemical used as a substitute for sugar, such as in diet sodas.


The Copyright Office has launched an initiative to examine the copyright law and policy issues raised by artificial intelligence (AI) technology, including the scope of copyright in works generated using AI tools and the use of copyrighted materials in AI training. After convening public listening sessions in the first half of 2023 to gather information about current technologies and their impact, the Office will publish a notice of inquiry in the Federal Register.

No. Artificial reef construction can only be completed by state or local coastal governments (County or City) in authorized permitted areas. The Army Corps of Engineers does not issue artificial reef permits directly to the general public (private citizens, fishing clubs, and nongovernmental organizations) due to long-term liability coverage requirements.

Any placement of artificial reef materials outside a valid U.S. Army Corps of Engineers artificial reef permitted areas is a violation of the Army Corps permit and may constitute illegal ocean dumping, an activity which carries significant federal penalties.

Allowable materials for artificial reef use are determined by U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (ACOE) and Florida Department of Environmental Protection (DEP) permit criteria. Deployed material is required to be heavy, stable, durable and non-polluting and provided long-term habitat enhancement.

Our program continues to strive to achieve and expand upon these goals. An important aspect of our program is not only to deploy artificial reefs, but to monitor their economic and environmental impacts. Monitoring projects that have been awarded grants include social economic studies, reef spacing and design, reef succession, juvenile fish recruitment, and comparisons of artificial reef fish communities with those on adjacent natural reefs.

The FWC Artificial Reef Program, in conjunction with Florida Sea Grant, coordinate annual regional artificial reef workshops throughout Florida to exchange information, lessons learned, and provide critical inter-county networking opportunities between state, non-profit organizations, marine contractors, and the public. In addition to our annual regional workshops, a statewide Artificial Reef Summit is held every 5 years.

The NRDA Early Restoration Phase III Florida Artificial Reef Creation and Restoration project is to provide additional long-term recreational opportunities through construction and restoration of artificial reefs to supplement the recreational opportunities that were lost during the BP Oil Spill.

Permitting is required for all artificial reef deployments. The FWC Artificial Reef Program does not issue permits for artificial reef sites. This regulatory responsibility is carried out by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (ACOE) for proposed artificial reef areas in federal waters and by both the ACOE and the Florida Department of Environmental Protection (DEP) in state waters. Both of these regulatory agencies accept comments from FWC and other interested parties during the artificial reef application review process.

Permits require all deployments to be documented and location verified. Prior to deployments the permit holder must submit a Reef Material Cargo Manifest Form informing the appropriate agencies of the proposed deployment plan (material type, amount, planned location etc.). After the deployment is complete, the permit holder then must submit a Material Placement Report detailing the verified location and material that was deployed. This form is what FWC Artificial Reef Program uses to track and publish all artificial reef sites.

Machine learning enables software applications to become more accurate at predicting outcomes without being explicitly programmed to do so. Machine learning algorithms use historical data as input to predict new output values. This approach became vastly more effective with the rise of large data sets to train on. Deep learning, a subset of machine learning, is based on our understanding of how the brain is structured. Deep learning's use of artificial neural networks structure is the underpinning of recent advances in AI, including self-driving cars and ChatGPT.

AI in finance. AI in personal finance applications, such as Intuit Mint or TurboTax, is disrupting financial institutions. Applications such as these collect personal data and provide financial advice. Other programs, such as IBM Watson, have been applied to the process of buying a home. Today, artificial intelligence software performs much of the trading on Wall Street.

Some industry experts have argued that the term artificial intelligence is too closely linked to popular culture, which has caused the general public to have improbable expectations about how AI will change the workplace and life in general. They have suggested using the term augmented intelligence to differentiate between AI systems that act autonomously -- popular culture examples include Hal 9000 and The Terminator -- and AI tools that support humans.

1956. The modern field of artificial intelligence is widely cited as starting this year during a summer conference at Dartmouth College. Sponsored by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA), the conference was attended by 10 luminaries in the field, including AI pioneers Marvin Minsky, Oliver Selfridge and John McCarthy, who is credited with coining the term artificial intelligence. Also in attendance were Allen Newell, a computer scientist, and Herbert A. Simon, an economist, political scientist and cognitive psychologist. The two presented their groundbreaking Logic Theorist, a computer program capable of proving certain mathematical theorems and referred to as the first AI program.

1970s and 1980s. The achievement of artificial general intelligence proved elusive, not imminent, hampered by limitations in computer processing and memory and by the complexity of the problem. Government and corporations backed away from their support of AI research, leading to a fallow period lasting from 1974 to 1980 known as the first "AI Winter." In the 1980s, research on deep learning techniques and industry's adoption of Edward Feigenbaum's expert systems sparked a new wave of AI enthusiasm, only to be followed by another collapse of government funding and industry support. The second AI winter lasted until the mid-1990s.

2020s. The current decade has seen the advent of generative AI, a type of artificial intelligence technology that can produce new content. Generative AI starts with a prompt that could be in the form of a text, an image, a video, a design, musical notes or any input that the AI system can process. Various AI algorithms then return new content in response to the prompt. Content can include essays, solutions to problems, or realistic fakes created from pictures or audio of a person. The abilities of language models such as ChatGPT-3, Google's Bard and Microsoft's Megatron-Turing NLG have wowed the world, but the technology is still in early stages, as evidenced by its tendency to hallucinate or skew answers.

Algorithms often play a very important part in the structure of artificial intelligence, where simple algorithms are used in simple applications, while more complex ones help frame strong artificial intelligence.

Our mission is to improve clinical care using artificial intelligence. Our vision is to accomplish this by solving existing gaps in mechanisms, diagnostics, risk assessment and therapeutics of major human disease conditions. We use a disease-based approach which enables cross-disciplinary connections among clinicians, scientists and trainees at Cedars-Sinai.

SummaryThe Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) is issuing this Health Alert Network (HAN) Health Advisory about infections with an extensively drug-resistant strain of Verona Integron-mediated Metallo-β-lactamase (VIM) and Guiana-Extended Spectrum-β-Lactamase (GES)-producing carbapenem-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa (VIM-GES-CRPA) in 12 states. Most patients reported using artificial tears. Patients reported more than 10 different brands of artificial tears, and some patients used multiple brands. The majority of patients who used artificial tears reported using EzriCare Artificial Tears, a preservative-free, over-the-counter product packaged in multidose bottles. CDC laboratory testing identified the presence of the outbreak strain in opened EzriCare bottles with different lot numbers collected from two states. Patients and healthcare providers should immediately discontinue using EzriCare artificial tears pending additional guidance from CDC and the Food and Drug Administration (FDA).

Review of common exposures revealed that most patients, including most patients with eye infections, used artificial tears prior to identification of VIM-GES-CRPA infection or colonization. Patients reported more than 10 brands of artificial tears, and some patients used multiple brands. The majority of patients who used artificial tears reported using EzriCare Artificial Tears, a preservative-free product dispensed in multidose bottles. This was the only common artificial tears product identified across the four healthcare facility clusters. CDC laboratory testing identified the presence of VIM-GES-CRPA in opened EzriCare Artificial Tears bottles from multiple lots; these bottles were collected from patients with and without eye infections in two states. These product-related VIM-GES-CRPA match the outbreak strain. VIM-GES-CRPA recovered from opened bottles could represent either bacterial contamination during use or during the manufacturing process. Testing of unopened bottles of EzriCare Artificial Tears is ongoing to assist in evaluating for whether contamination may have occurred during manufacturing. 041b061a72


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